Unlike English, Hindi has separate pronouns for intimate and formal conversations. ‘Tum tum’ is informal and used with close friends and family, while ‘aap aap’ is formal and polite, often indicating that the person is your equal or someone worthy of respect because of age or social standing.
Like most Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is inflected for number, case, tense, gender, and aspect. It also has two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine.
If you are a non-native speaker of Hindi, it can be difficult to know how to pronounce the language. You will need to understand some pronunciation rules, such as the difference between voiced and unvoiced consonants. You will also need to know how aspirated and unaspirated consonants are pronounced. There are some other rules to know as well, such as how vowels work in Hindi.
The first thing you need to know is that all Hindi vowels have two forms. The independent form is used when a vowel doesn’t follow a consonant (at the beginning of a word or after another vowel). The matra form is used when a vowel does track a consonant or at the end of a term. The vowel, for example, is pronounced like the English a in sand and teddy.
In addition to these two forms, a few Hindi vowels have special symbols. The chandrabindu is a symbol that looks like a crescent moon and dot, and it is usually placed over a consonant to make it nasal. This is an important feature to learn because it will help you read and pronounce Hindi words correctly.
Another essential thing to know is that the length of Hindi vowels varies. Some are pronounced longer than others, and this cannot be very clear for students who are learning the language. For instance, the vowel i is pronounced the same in sand and teddy, but it sounds different in ka and khaa.
Some letters don’t appear in the Hindi alphabet. These include eN and oN, which are not taught in most schools but are helpful in transliterating English into Hindi. They represent the RP English pronunciation of a and o in cot and log, respectively.
You will also need to learn about the consonant conjuncts, which are used to connect consonants. If a consonant has a vertical line on the right side, it is a conjunct. Otherwise, it is an independent consonant. In most cases, a consonant will have both the separate and matra forms.
The order of the consonants in Hindi follows that of the vowels. The order is determined by the placement of the tongue in the mouth. The consonants are also grouped according to the type of sound they make. For example, the letters k, g, and h are pronounced differently because they have different positions in the mouth. In addition, the t in the sounds like the d in dy, while the d in dd sounds different because it is an aspirated sound. Other consonants have aspirations as well, such as the cerebral and dental d.
Unlike English, Hindi does not have silent letters. When a consonant is not pronounced, it is written with a dot over it. This is called a dharmadhaan.
Hindi also has half consonants, which are used to form consonant clusters in words. These are marked by a vertical stroke that goes from the top right to the left bottom of the letter. For example, the letter r is often written in two ways: half r and full r. An extra dot above the letter indicates half r. This is called a dharamdhaan.
Several special characters are used to indicate nasal consonants. These are shown in the table below. Note that the independent forms of the vowels are shown on the top, and the dependent records are attached to consonants. For example, ka is the separate form of a, and ny is the conditional form of an.
Finally, the t in Hindi has an aspirated and unaspirated version. The aspirated t is pronounced with the tongue touching the roof of the mouth farther back than for the English t sound. The unaspirated t is pronounced with the tongue brushing only the front teeth. The two d’s and t’s in Hindi have the same meaning as in English but differ in pronunciation.
Similarly, the ng consonant is a nasal consonant that is often combined with other consonants to form word combinations. These combinations are sNgh Sangh (s sa + ng n+ g gh[a]), pNc panic (p pa + ny n), kHnndd khand (k hk + nn n + d d[a]), and bNd band (b ba + nn n + dd d[a]). The other consonant combinations use different rules for their order and the consonants they include.
Using synonyms in your writing helps you to express the same idea with fewer words. But it would be best if you were careful not to use words that are too similar, or you could confuse the reader. Also, it would be best if you chose words that are appropriate for the context. For example, if you are writing about a rainy day, you may want to use the word “dark” instead of “gloomy.” This will help the reader understand the mood you are trying to convey.
Many Hindi speakers are known to use Hinglish or English-Hindi hybrid words when speaking. This cannot be very clear for non-native speakers, as the meaning of these words is often different from their original definitions. The use of Hinglish is not a sign of ignorance; it’s simply a way to communicate more effectively with the native population.
If you’re learning Hindi, it’s essential to know the words that are used in everyday conversations. Some of these words are more common than others, but they can make a huge difference in your understanding of the language. To improve your vocabulary, try reading as much as you can and listening to conversations around you.
You can also look up new words in a dictionary. The Oxford Dictionary is an excellent resource for learning Hindi, as it contains definitions, pronunciation guides, and examples of usage. Its English-Hindi dictionary has more than 1000 entries and is a valuable tool for both beginner and advanced learners.
Similarly, the Cambridge dictionary has over 100 Hindi-English entries. It includes the most commonly used Hindi-English words, along with their pronunciation guides and meanings. It is an excellent resource for students of all levels, and it’s available online for free!
In the past few years, a number of Hindi words have been added to the Oxford dictionary. These include Jungle, Didi, Bapu, Chakka Jam, Timepass, and Achcha. In addition to these words, the dictionary has also added jugaad, which means a flexible approach to a problem. Other Hindi words that the Oxford Dictionary has adopted include khel, sauna, and funda.
In Hindi, words that have opposite meanings are called antonyms. They are used frequently in speech and writing, especially when comparing two things. They can help you express your feelings more clearly and avoid misunderstandings. In addition, they can minimize monotony in your language and capture the attention of your audience. Antonyms are also crucial for many competitive exams, which often test vocabulary and require you to use the right word in the right place.
The antonyms of English words are similar to the corresponding Indian words, but they often have different prefixes. This is why it’s essential to know which prefixes are common in the language you’re learning. These prefixes can change the meaning of a word, so it’s necessary to understand them well.
To help you learn these antonyms, try our English to Hindi and Hindi to English antonyms dictionary. It’s free, easy to use, and will make your English and Hindi learning much more accessible! Just click on a letter to view its antonym. This list is updated regularly, so please be sure to check back often. Also, feel free to contact us with any suggestions for additional antonyms you’d like to see added. We’ll be happy to include them.